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Freud's Psychosexual Stages
This suggests the view that freedom of the will is, if not completely an illusion, certainly more tightly circumscribed than is commonly believed, for it follows from this that whenever we make a choice we are governed by hidden mental processes of which we are unaware and over which we have no control. Shortly after his marriage in , which was extremely happy and gave Freud six children—the youngest of whom, Anna, was to herself become a distinguished psychoanalyst—Freud set up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders, which gave him much of the clinical material that he based his theories and pioneering techniques on. Erickson was of the view that the success of the subsequent stage was highly dependent upon the success of the previous one. Freud also followed Plato in his account of the nature of mental health or psychological well-being, which he saw as the establishment of a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind. The ego regulates the conscious mind's rational decision making processes, coping with the environment, and so on. In Sex and Repression in Savage Society , Malinowski reported that boys dreamed of feared uncles, not of beloved fathers, thus, power — not sexual jealousy — is the source of Oedipal conflict in such non—Western societies. Latency stage The fourth stage of psychosexual development is the latency stage that spans from the age of six years until puberty , wherein the child consolidates the character habits he or she developed in the three, earlier stages of psychologic and sexual development. With the advent of toilet training comes the child's obsession with the erogenous zone of the anus and with the retention or expulsion of the feces. The death drive may then motivate personality development by encouraging pusuit of sublimated cathexes. The success of the stage is based on how caregivers successfully manage to train the child into using the toilet. The first defense mechanism is repression , the blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet it does not resolve the Id—Ego conflict. To employ a much-used analogy, it is rather structurally akin to an iceberg, the bulk of it lying below the surface, exerting a dynamic and determining influence upon the part which is amenable to direct inspection—the conscious mind. This was to become the personal though by no means exclusive basis for his theory of the Oedipus complex. This model has many points of similarity with the account of the mind offered by Plato over 2, years earlier. The third stage notes similarities in that the young individuals try to assert their influence and possession towards other individuals; according to Freud it is only toward the parent of the opposite sex while according to Erickson, this was directed towards all their areas of influence.
Fixation at the phallic stage develops a phallic character, who is reckless, resolute, self-assured, and narcissistic--excessively vain and proud. All objects of consciousness reside in the ego; the contents of the id belong permanently to the unconscious mind; while the super-ego is an unconscious screening-mechanism which seeks to limit the blind pleasure-seeking drives of the id by the imposition of restrictive rules. Freud, Biologist of the Mind. Psychosexual development includes constituents: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, What he discovered, it has been suggested, was the extreme prevalence of child sexual abuse, particularly of young girls the vast majority of hysterics are women , even in respectable nineteenth century Vienna. Further, this particular point has taken on an added and even more controversial significance in recent years, with the willingness of some contemporary Freudians to combine the theory of repression with an acceptance of the wide-spread social prevalence of child sexual abuse. There is some debate as to how literally Freud intended this model to be taken he appears to have taken it extremely literally himself , but it is important to note that what is being offered here is indeed a theoretical model rather than a description of an observable object, which functions as a frame of reference to explain the link between early childhood experience and the mature adult normal or dysfunctional personality. This, picture, however, is incomplete. Eros fuels personality development as it is conceptualized by authors like Dabrowski - allowing us to adopt more effectively to our social environment. Verso in association with the Freud Museum, London , During this stage, Erickson believed a child develops a greater sense of control through training towards achieving feelings of control and independence. The third stage is the initiative vs. Princeton University Press, And so the debate goes on. This means that a deviance in any one of the preceding stages will be more pronounced if more actions are made in life. The instinct is then called the destructive instinct, the instinct for mastery, or the will to power. The libido has the task of making the destroying instinct innocuous, and it fulfills the task by diverting that instinct to a great extent outwards — soon with the help of a special organic system, the muscular apparatus — towards objects in the external world. If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of self , because it was the parents' will, and not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training. Freud also followed Plato in his account of the nature of mental health or psychological well-being, which he saw as the establishment of a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind. As indicated above, both Charcot and Breuer had a direct and immediate impact upon him, but some of the other factors, though no less important than these, were of a rather different nature. This, however, gives rise to socially derived feelings of guilt in the child, who recognizes that it can never supplant the stronger parent. He was initially greatly heartened by attracting followers of the intellectual caliber of Adler and Jung, and was correspondingly disappointed when they both went on to found rival schools of psychoanalysis—thus giving rise to the first two of many schisms in the movement—but he knew that such disagreement over basic principles had been part of the early development of every new science. Scientific[ edit ] A usual criticism of the scientific experimental validity of the Freudian psychology theory of human psychosexual development is that Sigmund Freud — was personally fixated upon human sexuality ; therefore, he favored defining human development with a normative theory of psychologic and sexual development. An Exploration of Essentials.
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